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ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME ZAMAN ZARFI CÜMLECİKLERİ - İngilizce Dersleri


ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME ZAMAN ZARFI CÜMLECİKLERİ

 

AFTER: sonra

1. Past perfect tense (hard verb3) içeren cümlelerden önce kullanılır.

After the children had watched the film, they went to bed.

Çocuklar filmi seyrettikten sonra, uyumaya gittiler.

2. Bazen after, past tense (verb2) içeren cümlelerden önce kullanılabilir:

After the children watched the film, they went to bed.

Çocuklar filmi seyrettikten sonra, uyumaya gittiler.

3. After present tense (do, does) içeren cümlelerden önce de kullanılabilir. Bu

durumda ikinci cümle simple future tense olmalıdır.

After he finishes the school, he will be an engineer.

Okulu bitirdikten sonra, mühendis olacak.

 

AÇIKLAMA

1. Zarf cümleciği ilk cümle olarak kullanıldığına, virgüle ile diğer cümleden ayrılır. Eğer ikinci cümle olarak kullanılırsa virgül kullanılmaz. Bu tüm zarf cümlecikleri için geçerlidir.

- After I graduate from the school, I will be a teacher.

- I will be a teacher after I graduate from the school.

2. Simple future tense (will), zarf cümlesi ile kullanılmaz.

After I will graduate from the school… (yanlış)

 

AFTER İLE KULLANILAN CÜMLELERİN ZAMANLARI

1. After past tense (verb2), past tense (verb2)

2. After present tense (do / does), simple future tense (will)

3. Past tense after past perfect tense

4. Simple future tense after present tense.

5 Simple future tense after simple present tense

 

BEFORE : önce

Before, past tense ve simple present tense yapısına sahip cümlelerden önce kullanılır:

Before he come here, we (had) decided.

O,buraya gelmeden önce, binayı terk etmeye karar vermiştik.

I will study hard before I take the oral exam.

Sözlü sınav olmadan önce, çok çalışacağım.

 

BEFORE İLE KULLANILAN CÜMLELERİN ZAMANLARI

1- Before past tense (verb2), past perfect tense

2- Past (perfect) tense before past tense

3- Before simple present tense, simple future tense (will)

4- Simple future tense before simple present tense

 

WHEN: …olduğu zaman

When she telephone , I was cooking the fish.

O, telefon ettiğinde, balığı pişiriyordum.

(When past tense, past cont. tense)

When he arrived, we had started to get prepared.

Geldiğinde, hazırlanmaya başlamıştık.

(When past tense, past perfect).

When it began to rain I took a taxi.

Yağmur başladığında, taksi tuttum.

(When past tense, past tense)

When we where in Ankara, we attended the meeting.

Ankara’dayken ,toplatıya katıldık.

(When past tense, past tense.)

 

When I call her, I will invite her to us.

Onu aradığımda, bize davet edeceğim.

(When present tense, simple future)

 

WHILE/ AS: …iken, sürecinde

While I was watching the TV, heard the news.

TV seyrediyorken, haberi duydum.

(While past cont. tense past tense)

As I was watching the TV, I heard the news.

TV seyrederken haberi duydum.

(While/As past cont tense, past tense)

He called me while (as) I was reading a book

 

BY THE TIME (THAT) (…..oluncaya kadar olduğunda)

By the time (that) they got to the airport , the plane had already taken off.

Onlar havaalanına vardıklarinda uçak kalkmış durumdaydı.

By the time (that) she graduates from the university , she will already have been here for six years.

Universiteden mezun olduğunda burada altı yıldır bulunmuş olacak

 

WHENEVER: Her ne zaman

Siple present whenever simple present

He visits me whenever he comes to Sakarya

 

SINCE ……….. DEN BERİ

I have made a lot of friends since I came here.

Buraya geldiğimden beri bir çok arkadaş edindim.

 

UNTIL / TILL …….. E KADAR

They waited at the bus stop until (till) they got on the bus .

Otobuse bininceye kadar durakta beklediler.

The students will be kept in until the storm stops.

 

AS SOON AS / ONCE …….OLUR OLMAZ

As soon as I get my driving licence, I will buy a car

As soon as (once) he saw her, he fell in love.

 

AS LONG AS / SO LONG AS . SÜRESİNCE (aynı anlamada)

As long as you listen to me carefully, you will not make any mistakes.

Beni dikkatli dinlediğin sürece hiç hata yapmayacaksin.

I will never allow you to go out as long as you finish homework

Ödevini bitirmediğin sürece senin dışarı çıkmana asla izin vermeyeceğim.

 

NO SOONER …… THAT : ….. DEN HEMEN SONRA, ……..İLE BİRLİKTE

He had no sooner drunk the wine that he began to throw up.

Past perfect / past

Şarabaı içmesilyle birlikte çikarmaya başladı.

Şarabı içer içmez çıkarmaya başladı.

I had no sooner entered the room that she began to shout at me.

Odaya girmem ile birlikte bana bağırmaya başlaması bir oldu

 

HARDLY…..WHEN: ……DAHA HENÜZ….OLMUŞTUKİ.

The plane had hardly taken off when we arrived at the airport.

Past perfect / past

Uçak henüz kalkmıştı ki biz havaalanına vardık.

 

IMMEDIATELY: …………. OLUR OLMAZ

Immediately he enters the classroom, he greets his friends ,

Sınıfa girer girmez arkadaşlarını selamlar.

Immediately she sleeps she begins to dream.

Uyur uyumaz rüya görmeye başlar.

 

JUST AS : ……..TAM, ……. İKEN

Just as I was leaving the house the telephone rang

Tam evden çıkıyorken telefon çaldı.

 

 

 

 

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF PLACE:

YER BİLDİREN ZARF CÜMLELERİ:

 

 

Bir eylemin nerede yapıldığnı gösterir ve “ WHERE” sorusuna cevap verir.

 

WHERE: ………..DIĞI YERDE ………DIĞI YERE

Sibel will wait for us where we saw you yesterday.

Dün seni gördüğümüz yerde Sibel bizi bekleyecek.

You should stay where you are .

Olduğun yerde kalmalısın.

 

 

WHEREVER: HER NEDRDE HER NEREYE

Jane makes friends wherever she goes

Jane her nereye giderse arkadaş edinir.

We saw many interesting things wherever we went

Nereye gittiskse bir çok ilginç şey gördük.

I enjoyed myself everywhere I went in Europe.

We asked for information every place we stopped.

 

AS FAR AS : E KADAR

 

She walked as far as she could

Yürüye bildiği kadar yürüdü.

 

AS NEAR AS: …. E KADAR.

You can go as near as you like to this lion.

Bu aslana istediğin kadar yaklaşabilirsin.

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF MANNER

TARZ ZARF CÜMLELERİ.

as if – as though / As / like (SANKİ/ GİBİ)

Konuşma dilinde as if-though yerine “LIKE” kullanilir.

We did our homework like our teacher told us.

Öğretmenin söylediği gibi ödevimizi yaptık.

 

1- AS IF / AS THOUGH GOİNG TO VERB

2- AS IF / AS THOUGH PAST TENSE

3- AS IF / AS THOUGH PAST PERFECT TENSE

4- AS IF / AS THOUGH PRESENT/ FUTURE TENSE

 

1-It looks as if (as though) it is going to rain.

Sanki yağmur yağacak gibi görünüyor.

2-He is behaving as if (as though) he were famous

He acted as if (as though) he were bachelor.

Sanki Bekarmiş gibi davarandılar

My father drove his car as if (as though) the police were chasing him.

Babam arabayı polis arkasından kovalıyormuş gibi sürüyordu.

3-They spoke as if (as though) they had drunk something at dinner.

 

Akşam yemeğinde bir şey içmiş gibi konuştular.

She speaks as if (as though) she will go to Istanbul

Istanbula gidecekmiş gibi konuşuyor.

She speaks as if she is a doctor

Sanki doctor gibi kunuşuyor. (belkide doctordur

My father does his work THE WAY (THAT) he was taught.

Babam işini öğretildiği gibi yapıyor.

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF CAUSE:

NEDEN CÜMLELERİ:

Because we were tired, we went to bed early.

Yargun olduğumuzdan erkenden yattik.

He couldn't go to school since he was ill.

Hasta olduğundan okula gidemedi.

As she has read the book carefully, she can answer all these questions.

Kitabi dikkatle okuduğundan bütün sorulari cevaplayabildi

Now that the school is over, I will take a trip.

Artik okul bitiğinden seyahata çikabilirim.

Seeing that we ore all here, we might as well begin

Madem ki hepimiz buredayiz, başlayabiliriz.

As long as you aren't busy, could you help me?

Madem ki meşgul değilsiniz, bana yardim eder misiniz?

Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.

Hükmet liderleri bir anlaşmaya varamadiklarindan, beriş alesiliqi hale uzak görünüyor

On account of the fact that the country was at war, all the young men were drafted.

Ülke savaşta olduğundan bütün gençle askere alınndı.

Owing to the fact that we had not prepared for the debate, we had a difficult time.

Tartışmaya hazırlanmamış olduğumuz için güçlük çektik.

In view of the fact that he was ill, we had to postpone the meeting.

Hasta olduğundan toplentiyi ertelemek zorunde kaldik.

Because of the fact that there was a terrible storm, we decided to stay home.

Kötü bir firtına olduğundan evde kalmeye karar verdik.

Due to the fact that the gas price went up again, there was less traffic.

Benzin fiyetleri tekrar artığından, (yolda) daha az trafik vardı

 

 

 

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF CONCESSION. (ZITLIK)

 

Although my father has worked hard all his life, he could never

save up enough money to busy a house.

Babam bütün hayatı boyunca çok çalışmasına karşın( rağmen) bir ev satin alabilecek kadar para biriktiremedi.

Though she is fond of music she cannot play any instrument .

Müziye düşkün olmasına karşın (rağmen) bir müzik aleti çalamıyor.

In spite of the fact that they are poor, they are very happy.

Yoksul olmalarina karşin çok mutlular.

We are poor, whereas you are very rich.

Sizin zenginlğinize karşın biz yoksuluz.

While I admit that this problem is difficult, I don't agree that it cannot be solved.

Sorunun güçlüğünü kabül etmeme rağmen (karşılık) çözülmeyeceğini kanul etmiyorum.

 

HOWEVER+ ADJECTIVE/ ADVERB.

However hard he worked, he couldn't earn enough money.

Çok çalıştıysa da da yeterinco para kazanamadi.

However rich people are, they always want more.

tnsanlar no kadar rengin olsalar daha faziasini isterler.

However fast you drive, I feel safe with you.

Ne kadar da hızlı araba kullansanız sizinle güven duyuyorum.

However much he eats, he never gets fat.

Ne kadar çok yese şişmanlamiyor.

 

NO-MATTER + QW

No-matter how hard you try, you can’t speak English

Ne kadar uğraşsanız İngilizce öğrenemesiniz.

No matter who' telephones, tell him I ** out.

Kim telefon ederse etsin dışarıda olduğumu söyle

No matter where you go, you'll meet p,ple like hin.

Nereye giderseniz gidin onun gibilerine rastlarsiniz.

 

NEVERTHELESS:YİNE DE

It was hot: nevertheless.( nevertheless,) we put on our coats.

Hava sıcaktı, yine de paltolarımızı giydik.

 

NONETHELESS: …YİNE DE

We closed the doors; nonetheless, he made many mistakes on the test.

Kapıları kapadık, yine de içerisi hala soğuk.

 

HOWEWER :BUNUNLA BERABER , YİNE DE

He doesn’t seem trustful; however, everybody still believes him.

O, güvenilir görünmüyor, bununla beraber herkes ona inanıyor.

 

ON THE OTHER HAND İĞER TARAFTAN, BUNA KARŞILIK

They are pessimistic. These people, on the other hand, are optimistic.

Onlar kötümsemdir.Bu insanlar ise, buna karşılık (oysa) iyimserdir.

ON THA CONTURARY :TAM AKSİNE, TAM TERSİNE

She isn’t ugly. On the contrary, she is very beautiful.

Çirkin değildir. Tam aksine çok güzeldir.

 

BUT :FAKAT

She told a lie, but we understood it.

Yalan söyledi fakat bunu anladık.

 

YET :YİNE DE

I like egg; yet I can’t eat since I’m allergic to it.

Yumurtayı severim, yine de (fakat) yiyemem çünkü ona allerjim var.

 

DESPİTE (+noun) / DESPİTE THE FACT THAT (+sentences) : …RAĞMEN

They went out despite the rain.

Yağmura rağmen dışarı çıktılar

She was happy despite her illness.

Hastalığına rağmen mutludur.

 

IN SPITE OF (+noun) / IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT (+sent) :… RAĞMEN

They went out in spite of the rain.

Yağmura rağmen dişarı çıktılar.

She was happy in spite of her illness.

Hastalığına rağmen mutludur.

 

BUT…ANYWAY : FAKAT YİNE DE…

She was cold, but she didn’t wear her coat anyway.

 

 

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF PURPOSE

AMAÇ : SO THAT + CAN

COULD

WİLL

WOULD

I ** going to cash a check so that I can pay my debts.

Borçlarimi ödeyebileyim diye bir çek bozduracağım.

We turned off radio so that you could sleep.

Uyuyabilesiniz diye radyoyu kapattık.

 

Wee keep milk in a refrigerator so that it will not spoil.

Bozulmasın dşye sütü buzdolabında tutatrız.

Yesterday she put the meat in the oven at 5 so that it would be ready by six.

Saat altıda hazır olsun diye dun beşte eti fırına koydu.

 

In order that

Uyarı:In order that, so that ile aynı anşamdadır fakat onun kadar yaygın değildir.

I turned off the record player in order that my roommate could study.

Oda arkadaşım çalışabilsin diye pikabı kapattım.

I turned the radio down very low in order that I shouldn’t disturb you.

Sizi rahatsız etmeyeyim diye radyonun sesini iyice kıstım.

Builders worked day and night in order that the school might be finished in time.

Okulu zamanında bitirelim diye inşaatçılar gece gündüz çalıştılar.

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF RESULT

SONUÇ : such(a) + sıfat + ad +that

 

It was such an interesting book that I read it several times.

Öylesine ilging bir kitap ki birkaç kez okudum.

It was such cold water that we couldn’t drink it.

Su , öylesine soğuktu içemedik.

So +sıfat yada zarf+ that

This book is so interesting that I can read it several times.

Bu kitap öylesine ilginç ki birkaç kez okuyabilirim.

She is so beautiful that many young man are in love with her.

Öyle güzel ki birçok genç ona aşık.

She can swim so well that she can easily win this contest.

Öylesine iyi yüzebiliyor ki bu yarışı kolaylıkla kazanabilir.

You spoke so foolishly that everybody laughed at you.

Öylesine aptalca konuştun ki herkes sana güldü.

Uyarı: Miktar gösteren ifadelerden MANY,FEW,MUCH ve LİTTLE ile so…..that kullanılır.A LOT OF ile de such….that kullanılır.

She made so many mistakes that she failed exam.

O kadar yanlış yaptı ki sınavı başaramadı.

I have so few friends that I always feel lonely.

O kadar az arkadaşım varki kendimi hep yanlız hissediyorum.

They have so much money that they can live even in a palace.

O kadar çok paraları var ki sarayda bile yaşayabilirler.

We have so little money left that we should go back home.

Okadar az paramız kaldı ki eve dönmemiz gerekiyor.

She had such a lot of questions that I didn’t have time enough to answer them,

Okadar çok soru sordu ki yanıtlamak için yeterince zaman bulamadım.

Uyarı: Kimi zaman, özellikle de konuşma dilinde, THAT kullanılmayabilir.

It was such a good book(that) I read it several times.

I was so hungry (that) I couldn’t wait for dinner.

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF DURATION

SÜREÇ

Since Since she was told her husband had had a traffic accident, she has been unable to think of anything else.

Ever since He has been living in a small village ever since he retired.

Until We listened to pop music until our father came home.

Till Till she was 15 years old, she hadn’t seen an aeroplane.

All the time All the time I was there I didn’t see anybody.

As long as The class was very quiet as long as the teacher was there, but as soon as the teacher left they started making a terrible noise.

 

Until= till: (belli bir zaman).. a kadar

TILL daha çok konuşma dilinde kullanılır.

 

ADVERBIAL CLASUSES OF CONTINGENCY

BEKLENTİ

In case(that)

I ** taking my umbrella in case it rains.

Yağmur yağabilir diye şemsiyemi alıyorum.

I telephoned home in case my wife wanted something.

Karım bir şey isteyebilir diye eve telefon ettim.

You should insure your house in case there is a fire.

Yangın olasılığına karşı evinizi sigorta ettirmelisiniz.

Take Ali’s address with you, in case you have time too see him when you are in Bursa

Ali’nin adresini yanınıza alın, belki Bursa’dayken onu görmek için vaktiniz olabilir.

I took a couple of notebooks, in case I should have time to do some writing.

Yazmak için vaktim olabilir diye birkaç defter aldım.

 

“Past tense” cümlelerde in case çoğunlukla should ile birlikte kullanılır.

In case of: bir ilgeçtir.

In case of fire, you should telephone 999.

 

for fear that

The king always took a dozen of bodyguards for fear that he should be attacked.

Saldırıya uğrayabilirim diye kral daima bir düzine muhafızla dolaşıyordu.

 

Lest

They decided to retreat at once lest they should be cut off from the main force.

Ana kuvvetle ilişkileri kesilebilir diye derhal geri çekilmeye karar verdiler.

I obeyed her lest she should be angry.

Kızmasın diye itaat ettim.

I fear lest she decide to leave me.

Beni terk edecek diye korkuyorum.

She was fearful lest her son be (should be ,must be) hurt.

Oğlu incinecek diye korkuyordu.

Lest: resmi dil, kitap dili

I ** telling you this lest you should make a mistake.

(= I ** telling you this so that you shouldn’t make a mistake.)

Bir yanlışlık yapmayasınız diye bunu size söylüyorum.

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

TIME: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE FOLLOWING:

after / while / by the time / whenever / until / ever since / before / as / when

1- Last night I went to bed ___________ I had written a letter.

2- ______________ I was a child, I have been afraid of dark.

3- Aylin’s contact lens popped out ________________ she was playing basketball.

4- Be sure to reread your composition for your mistakes________ you hand it in to your teacher.

5- _________________ we left our apartment , we had already decided what to do.

6- We have been living in this house __________________ we moved to this town.

7- A black cat ran across the road ________________ I was driving my car to work today.

8- ______________ he gets angry, he gets red in the face.

9- I can’t pay my bills _______________ my pay check comes.

10- We used to go to the beach _________________ the weather was nice, but we don’t have time to do that.

 

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SPACES WITH A SUITABLE WORD .

After while since whenever until as soon as

as immediately before so long as once hardly ... when

1. It began to snow ________ they were waiting at the bus stop.

2. We have made a good progress we started this course.

3. He visited me ________ he had a business in istanbul.

4. _______ you finish writing it, I will write, too.

5. I'll always remember this story I live.

6. _________ the bird saw me, it flew away.

7. I heard a big noise ________ I was resting in my office.

8. ________ I had watered the flowers, 1 trimmed the leaves of the tires.

9. I can't go out-- I take permission.

10.1 studied English ________ I understood some points.

11. ________ he sees a person, he begins to talk with him or her.

12. The meeting had ________ started ________ we arrived.

13. ________they were playing in the garden, I was trying to sleep.

14. We must wait here ________ they call us.

15. _______ the school had started, we bought our textbooks.

16.I have learned a lot of things ________ I attended this course.

 

PLACE:

1- We camped . The trees were shady there. (where)

2-There is never peace. Men are greedy there. (where)

3-I hid the gun. I thought no one could find it there. ( where)

4- Mary makes friends. She goes anywhere. ( wherever)

5-You go anywhere else. You mustn't forget to visit us. (wherever)

6-She doesn't want to go. She has enemies. ( anywhere)

7-You may park your car. You like. ( wherever9

8- We saw many things neglected. We inspected.( everywhere)

 

COMPLETE EACH SENTENCE WITH AS IF/ AS THOUGH.(MANNER)

1- ( She wasn’t run over by a ten-ton truck.)

She feels terrible. She feels ________________

2- (English is not your native tongue)

You speak English________________

3- ( His animals aren’t people.)

This farmer talks to his animals________________

4- (You are not a king)

Sometimes you give orders________________

5- (She does have a brain in her head)

Sometimes she acts________________

6- (A giant bulldozer didn’t drive down Main Street)

After the tornado, the town looked ________________

7- (Mrs. Brown is not a fragile doll.)

Mr. Brown treats his wife _____________________________

8- ( The bank might approve his loan.)

It looks_________________________________

9- (Was he unaware of recent developments?)

Ha acted________________________________

10- (The world doesn’t own him a living.)

He acts ____________________________________

 

 

 

Şebnem kullanıcısının bu bilgilendirici iletisine teşekkür eden üye : 

ghostgirl (29.12.08)

 

  #6    28.02.07, 00:04 

 

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 Adverbial Clauses

 

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CONCESSION MAKE ONE SENTENCE USING ALTHOUGH

 

1- The dog had barked for hours. It was quite when the police come.

2- She had worn the coat for a week. She returned it to the store.

3- She hadn’t used the machine before. She liked her new jobs.

4- They hadn’t fixed the car. They sold it to their neighbour.

5- I was deeply hurt by her remarks. I said nothing in reply.

PURPOSE:

1-He killed his brother. He wanted to become king. ( so that)

2-I stood a side. The teacher wanted to enter the class. ( in order that)

3-I'll ask easy questions. I want all of the students to pass the exam. ( so that)

4- Jane works hard. She wants to enter the university exam. (in order that)

5- I wrote down the address. I didn't want to forget it. ( so that)

6-You had better chain up the dog. He wants to bite the people. (in case)

7-The boy doesn't go near the water. He doesn't want to fall in. ( in case)

8- She tunred out the lights. She didn't want to waste the electricity. ( so that)

 

RESULT: COMBINE THE SENTENCES USING “ SO ..................... THAT “

1-She speaks fast. Nobody understands her.

2-She travels often. She spends a lot of money.

3-She is very boring. We can2t stand listening to her.

4-His bed is very uncomfortable . He can’t sleep in it.

5-Linda is very tired . She can’t move a finger.

REASON:

1-The poor man died. He had lost a lot of money. (because)

2-I won't buy that car. It uses a lot of petrol. (for)

3-They couldn't take a vacation. They had no money. ( as)

4-I didn't want to break your heart.. I didn't say a word. (since)

5-You don't work hard. You can't expect to succeed. ( since)

6-We walked very carefully. The stones were slippery. ( seeing that)

7-It is raining. We'd better not play tennis. ( seeing that)

8- The days are becoming shorter. Winter is approaching. ( now that)

9-I couldn't understand him. He spoke hesitantly. (in that)

10-My friend lost all his money. He made very poor investment. ( in that)

Clauses of Reason

• Clauses of reason are introduced by: as, since,

because, for, the reason for, the reason (why), on the

grounds that etc. As he was late for work, he got a taxi.

• Because usually answers a why-question. "Why did you

lie to him?" "Because I was afraid of being punished." For

always comes after a comma in written speech or a pause

in oral speech. I didn't tell him anything, for I don't trust him.

• Other ways of expressing reason:

Because of/Due to + noun/-mg form She was late because

of/due to heavy traffic. Because of/Due to + the fact that...

Because of the tact that/Due to the fact that it had been

snowing for four days, all roads were closed.

 

Clauses of Result

• Clauses of result are introduced by: that (after such/so...), (and) as a result, (and) as a consequence, consequently, so etc. The sea is so cold that they can't swim.

such a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable It was such a nice dress that she bought it.

such + (adjective) + uncountable /plural noun It was such bad weather that we stayed indoors.

such + a lot of + noun There were such a lot of people

on the bus that there were no seats left.

so + adjective/adverb He speaks so quickly that hardly anyone can understand him.

so + much/many/little/few + noun She won so much money in the lottery that she bought a mansion.

so + adjective + a(n) + noun It was so delicious a cake that we ate it all (not usual)

as a result / therefore/ consequently /so + clause He didn't have a visa and as a result he couldn't enter the country.

 

A 78- Fill in so, such or such a(n).

Mandy was getting 1) SO bored one afternoon that she decided to go shopping. She always took 2)_______ pleasure in buying things for herself that she would often spend lots of money in just one day. She set out feeling really excited. After two hours she had bought 3) _______ many things that she could hardly carry them. The shops were closing and there was 4) _______ lot of traffic in the streets that she couldn't find a taxi. She started feeling frustrated as the parcels and bags she was carrying were getting in everyone's way. She was 5) _______ anxious to get back home that she decided to take the underground. She took 6) _______ long time to find her purse among her things that people waiting behind her in the queue started muttering. When she finally found it, there was 7) _______ little money in it that she didn't have enough to buy a ticket. Mandy was 8 ) _______ embarrassed that she just wanted to disappear. She left the station and was in 9) _______ desperate state that she didn't know what to do. "I've spent 10) _______ much money," she thought, "that I've made a fool of myself in front of complete strangers." Mandy eventually got home with all her shopping after getting a lift in a pizza delivery van!

B 79-Join the sentences using the words in brackets.

1 It was a hard job. We were exhausted by the time we had finished. (such.. that)

It was such a hard job we were exhausted by the time we had finished

2 He'd forgotten to bring the report with him. He had to go home and get it. (because)

3 The food was bad. We complained to the manager. (Since...)

4 It was a long journey. They packed some food to take with them. (due to the tact)

5 1 hate sailing. I get seasick. (the reason)

6 Their house is too small. They are going to look for a larger one. (consequently)

7 Sharon is busy this weekend. She can't come to the seaside with us. (Since)

8 The exam was difficult. Many students failed. (such.. that)

9 They fell behind with the project. They had to work overtime. (as a result)

10 Their flight was delayed. They spent the night in a hotel.(as)

 

 

 

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  #7    28.02.07, 00:07 

 

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 Adverbial Clauses

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

C 80 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 The team were so good that we couldn't beat them.

such They were . . such a good team that... we couldn't beat them.

2 It was such a boring film that we left in the middle.

SO It was ______________________we left in the middle.

3 No one knows why they are emigrating.

for No one knows ______________________emigrating.

4 Our car broke down so we were very late.

consequently Our car broke down ______________________very late.

5 She was so insistent that we couldn't ignore her.

too She was ______________________ ignore.

6 They couldn't go to the post office because of a snowstorm.

as They couldn't go to the post office ______________________ snowstorm.

7 She had a very bad night's sleep, so she was exhausted.

result She had a very bad night's sleep ______________________ she was exhausted.

8 Do you know the reason for her leaving her job?

why Do ______________________ her job?

9 The coffee was so strong that I couldn't drink it.

such It ______________________that I couldn't drink it.

10 He was such a skilful player that he seldom lost a game.

So He was ______________________ he seldom lost a game.

11 He didn't get the job because he was inexperienced.

To He didn't get the job ______________________ experience.

D 81 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 She gave us a lift, which was kind of her.

of It was .. kind of her to give... us a lift.

2 That's the college my son got his degree from.

where That's _______________ got his degree.

3 I bought several dictionaries but none of them are really up to date.

Which I bought ____________ are really up to date.

4 This is Emma Thompson; her husband is an Oscar nominee.

whose This is Emma Thompson _____________ nominee.

5 The reason for his resignation is strictly personal.

why The reason_______________ strictly personal.

6 It was such an appalling event that we'd rather forget about it.

so It was _______________ we'd rather forget about it.

7 It was so late that I couldn't get to the meeting.

too It was _______________ get to the meeting.

8 He forgot to post his application so he didn't get called for an interview.

result He forgot to post his application _______________ he didn't get called for an interview.

9 He came into his inheritance and immediately after he bought a Ferrari. soon He bought a Ferrari _______________ into his inheritance

10 The children were so polite that everyone took to them.

Such They were _______________ everyone took to them.

11 When he got the phone call, he left the house immediately.

moment He left the house _______________ the phone call.

12 The last time I saw Peter was 14 February.

since I _______________14 February.

13 Careless drivers should be punished.

Carelessly People _______________ should be punished.

14 One of the five students he interviewed was Spanish.

whom He interviewed _______________was Spanish.

E 103 Join the sentences using the words in brackets.

1 It was raining. The match was called off. (due to) ... Due to the rain, the match was called off....

2 He left her. He couldn't put up with her complaints. (for) ___________________

3 We can't go on holiday. There's too much work to do. (since) ___________________

4 I can't come with you. I have to visit my uncle. (as) ___________________

5 She made mistakes. She wasn't experienced. (because) ___________________

6 I didn't know that she had been married. She seldom talks about herself. (since) ___________________

7 She took a break. She wasn't feeling well. (because) ___________________

8 She was soaked to the skin. It was raining very hard. (as) ___________________

9 He is in debt. He will have to reduce his spending a lot. (on the grounds that) ___________________

10 They turned back. They didn't want to get stuck in the traffic. (for) ___________________

F 104 Fill in: so, such or such a(n).

A few years ago, I spent my holiday on the Greek island or Santorini. I was 1)...S0... worried about travelling alone that I became quite nervous However, about five minutes after the ferry had left I met 2) ________ nice American couple that I stayed with them for the whole holiday. When we docked, we were pushed onto a bus that was filled with 3) ________ a lot of people that we felt as if we couldn't breathe. At the bus station there were 4) ________ many people waiting to offer us accommodation that we decided to ignore them, preferring to walk along the main road to find somewhere to stay ourselves. After an hour or so we started to think that not accepting any of the men's offers of accommodation had been 5) ________ bad idea that we decided to ask someone for help. We asked an old man if he knew of anywhere we could stay. He led us to a lovely little apartment on the edge of a cliff. lt was 6) ________ gorgeous a flat, and the view was 7) ________ good that we took it immediately. We had brought 8) ________ few things with us, and it took us 9) ________ short time to unpack that we were on the famous black sand beach in no time. We had 10) ________ nice time together and we became 11) ________ good friends that we still keep in touch, sending letters and Christmas cards. This year Scott and Arianne are coming to Scotland to spend Christmas with me. It will be great to see them again.

G 106 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 The town was so unfriendly that we left immediately.

An It was . . such an unfriendly town that... we left immediately.

 

 

 

 

 

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  #8    28.02.07, 00:08 

 

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 Adverbial Clauses

 

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6 I'll bring something for dessert. We may want to eat something sweet later. (in case)

7 This is a bread bin. You use it to keep bread fresh. (for)

8 I brought my umbrella. The weather forecast said it would rain later. (in case)

J 109 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 He had taken an anorak so he wouldn't get wet.

Avoid He had taken an anorak .. to avoid getting ... wet.

2 Travellers are advised to take out insurance. Their luggage may go astray.

Case Travellers are advised to take out insurance _________________ astray.

3 Lynn has just bought a new car. She plans to drive around Europe this summer.

aim Lynn bought a new car_________________ around Europe this summer.

4 There are ramps in the road so that motorists won't drive too fast.

prevent There are ramps in the road_______________ too fast.

5 John took up karate. He wanted to become fitter.

view John took up karate _________________ fitter.

6 I'll pack some juice for the picnic. We may be thirsty later.

case I'll pack some juice for the picnic ______________ later.

7I went to the market early. I wanted to buy some fresh fish.

in I went to the market early _________________ some fresh fish.

8 This is a hammer. You use it to bang in nails.

for A hammer is_________________ nails.

9 Mary did her Christmas shopping early. She didn't want to do it on Christmas Eve.

avoid Mary did her Christmas shopping early _________________ on Christmas Eve.

10 Dennis is saving money. He wants to go to Australia.

order Dennis is saving money __________ to Australia.

11 She started an art and design course last year. She plans to open her own business.

view She started an art and design course last year_________________ her own business.

K 110 Fill in an appropriate purpose word and put the verbs into the correct form.

Dear Sir/Madam

We have produced this information sheet 1)... With a view... to . . making... (make) the registration procedure easier for you. Read it carefully 2) _________ (familiarise) yourself with the procedure. Each faculty must register at a certain time so please do come on time 3) ___________ (not/make) the process more difficult. You must report to the registrar's office 4) ____________ (give) her your personal details. You must also bring your passport with you 5) _____________ they ____________ (verify) these details. After this you must go to the main section 6) _________________ (have) your photograph taken. You will then be given your student identification card which may be used 7) _________________ (take out) books. We have included a map of the campus 8) ______________ you ___________ (not/get) Lost.

We Look forward to seeing you on registration day.

yours faithfully, Jane Smith

Expressing Concession - Clauses of Concession

Concession is expressed with:

• although/even though/though + clause Although it was expensive, she bought it

• despite/in spite of + noun/-mg form Despite his wealth/being rich, he never lends money.

• despite/in spite of the fact + that-clause In spite of the fact that he's rich, he never lends money.

• while/whereas/but/on the other hand/yet + clause She swam fast, yet she finished third.

• nevertheless/ however + clause He is bright however, he is rather lazy.

• however/no mailer how + adj/adv + subject (+ may) + verb However clever you are, you won't solve this puzzle. However fast he runs, he won't catch the robbers.

• whatever/no mailer what + clause Whatever you do, you won 't succeed.

• adj/adv + though + subject + verb/(may + bare lnf) Loudly though he knocked on the door, nobody heard.

• adj/adv + as + subject + verb Exhausted as she was, she went to the party.

• Note that a comma Is used when the clause of

L 85 concession either precedes or follows the main clause.

Whatever she says, he won't believe her. He won't believe her,

whatever she says.

Underline the correct item.

1 However/Despite the great danger, we decided to attempt the rescue.

2 In spite of the fact that/Despite she is disabled, she plays a lot of sports.

3 He decided not to do the computer course, although/whereas it would have been useful to him.

4 He knows he is damaging his health, despite/yet he continues to smoke.

5 Even though/In spite of strong opposition from the public, the company went ahead with its plans.

6 Brilliant though/although the cook may be, he knows nothing about French sauces.

7 Although/However he ate a lot of spicy food at the reception, he didn't suffer from indigestion.

8 1 can't agree with you on this subject, however/whatever hard you may try to convince me.

9 I arrived late at the cinema, but/as I still got a good seat.

10 No matter how/No matter what measures the government takes against hooliganism, there will still be fans who overreact.

M 87 Fill the gaps with the following words:

whatever, no matter how, although, nevertheless, in spite of, whereas

1) ...Although.... Christmas is one of the great Christian festivals, nowadays it has more than a religious aspect. lt is an occasion celebrated all over the world 2)__________ people's religious beliefs. 3) __________ Christmas is still a time of peace and goodwill towards others. 4) __________ its religious origins Christmas falls at the same time of year as the great pagan festivals. Christmas presents, in fact, are of pagan origin. Some countries exchange gifts on 25 December 5) __________ others wait until 6 January. Children's presents are traditionally left for them by Father Christmas, a jolly character with a white beard and a red suit. 6) __________ old you are, Christmas continues to hold a special magic for young and old alike.

N 88 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 She tried hard, but she couldn't solve the problem.

As Hard . 'as she triad.. .,she couldn't solve the problem.

2 However much you complain, they won't give you a refund.

How No___________________ complain, they won't give you a refund.

3 He's a writer but he often makes spelling mistakes.

being In ___________________ a writer, he often makes spelling mistakes.

4 Although she exercises a lot, she's not very strong.

fact Despite ________________ a lot, she's not very strong.

5 In spite of his leaving home early, he was late for the appointment.

though Even ___________________ early, he was late for the appointment.

6 The plot was complicated, but I enjoyed the fun a lot.

though Complicated ___________________ I enjoyed the film a lot.

7 John works as a travel agent, but he's never been abroad.

of In ___________________ a travel agent, John has never been abroad.

8 However hard he tried, he didn't succeed.

mailer He didn't succeed ___________________ he tried.

9 In spite of having a good voice, he could never be a professional singer.

has Although ___________________ he could never be a professional singer.

10 She did her best. She failed the exam.

yet She ___________________ failed the exam.

O 111 Underline the correct item.

1 Yet/No matter what he does to please her, she always finds something to complain about.

2 Although/However I set my alarm clock for 7.00 **, it didn't go off.

3 Despite/Even though the bad weather forecast, Susan and Jim went climbing.

4 She tries hard, although/yet she makes little progress.

5 Tom's wife drives better than he does, whereas/although he won't admit it.

6 Lots of people drive fast although/in spite of police warnings.

7 Bad mannered though/yet he is, he has got lots of friends.

8 She is a brilliant singer; while/nevertheless, she refuses to sing in public.

9 Rich as/even though they are, they never buy expensive things.

10 However/While much she denies it, she does dye her hair blonde.

11 She speaks Japanese fluently, yet/despite she has never visited the country.

12 In spite of/However all the bad publicity, the film became a box office success.

13 Janine turned up at the wedding even though/despite she wasn't invited.

14 However/Though hard he tries, he'll never outsmart Pat.

15 Much as/yet I admire her, I can't accept her point of view on this mailer.

16 The northwest of the country gets a lot of rain whereas/as the east gets more snow.

P 112 Fill in: although/though/even though, despite, while / whereas, but, however/no matter how, or nevertheless.

Your Stars

"...And now for a quick look at what's in store for Librans this month. It may seem like all work and no play at the moment. 1) Nevertheless ..,if you apply yourself, you'll feel satisfied with

a job well done. And don't worry! 2) _________________ difficult things may be right now, you'll soon have a chance to relax. 3) _________________ having a lot on your mind, you must be careful not to neglect your partner. 4) _________________ you are probably feeling confident and secure in your relationship, he/she is likely to be in need of some extra love and attention. There will be a lot of demands on your time this weekend 5) _________________ the situation will ease by the end of the month. And 6) _________________ there may be lots of changes in store for you, there's nothing you can't cope with."

Q 115 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Diamonds are expensive but people buy them.

though Even .. though diamonds are expensive.... people buy them.

2 The weather is so warm that we're wearing T-shirts, even though it's almost Christmas.

yet It's almost _________________ so warm that we're wearing T-shirts.

3 He tried to solve the problem but he couldn't find the solution.

how No _________________ to solve the problem he couldn't find the solution.

4 He got a well paid job even though he didn't have much experience.

of In _________________ experience, he got a well paid job.

5 He read the book, although he found it boring.

fact He read the book _________________ it boring.

6 You can say what you like but I don't think he'll win.

mailer No _________________ I don't think he'll win.

7 Although she dislikes pets, she allowed her children to get a dog.

nevertheless She _____________ her children to get a dog.

8 John is interested in computers. His wife enjoys gardening.

while John is interested in computers ________________ gardening.

9 You can try all you want, but you'll never convince him to help you.

mailer You'll never convince him to help you ___________ try.

10 She was very upset but she managed to behave cheerfully.

as Upset _________________ to behave cheerfully.

11 I like horror films; they frighten me though.

even I like horror films _________________ me.

Clauses of Manner

• Clauses of manner are introduced by: as if/as though (after the verbs act, appear, be, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste), as, how, (in) the way, (in) the way that, the way in which, (in) the same way, (in) the same way as. It smells as it they are frying chicken. Do as you like.

 

 

 

  #9    28.02.07, 00:11 

 

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 Adverbial Clauses

 

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• Were can be used instead of was in formal English in all persons in clauses introduced with as if/as though. She behaves as it she were/was the Queen.

• The tense forms used after as if/as though depend on whether the ideas are true or untrue.

as If/as though + any tense form (expressing similarity/probability - how sb/ sth seemed)

She sounds as it she is Italian. (She may be Italian)

She looked as if she was tired. (She may have been tired)

as If/as though + Past Simple/Past Continuous (unreal in the present)

She treats me as if she were my mother. (but she isn't)

as if/as though + Past Perfect (unreal In the past)

She talked about Marilyn Monroe as it They had been close friends. (but they hadn't been)

R 89 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 Does he ever have a holiday? It seems as though he ... works... (work) seven days a week!

2 My father is so proud of his cooking - he behaves as though he ____________ (be) a trained chef.

3 The boy was staring at the motorbike as if he ____________ (never/see) one before.

4 She is so skinny! She looks as though she____________ (never/eat) a proper meal in her life!

5 He slept for ten hours last night but today he's acting as though he ____________ (not/ have) any sleep at all.

6 She isn't a member of the aristocracy but she acts as though she____________(be).

7 My brother isn't rich but he spends money as if he____________ (be) a millionaire.

8 He talked about Hawaii as if he ____________(be) there, but we knew he hadn't.

9 The boy was so hungry that he ate the food as though he____________ (not/eat) for a week.

10 The hand-painted bowl was quite cheap but it looked as though it____________ (be) expensive.

11 You look as though you____________ (have) some good news recently.

12 It seems as if the burglar____________ (break in) through the study window.

13 As Mansell rounds the last corner, it looks as if he____________ (win) the race easily.

14 1 talked to him on the phone and he sounded as though he ____________(just/wake up).

15 The baby seems as if it____________(have) a temperature; why don't you get the thermometer?

S 90 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 He was hungry. He felt like he could eat a horse.

as He was so hungry he. felt as though he could . eat a horse.

2 Someone must have added too much salt to the soup.

though The soup tasted ____________ too much salt.

3 He seems to have put on weight since I last saw him.

if He looks ____________ on weight since I last saw him.

4 She had a feeling that she had been in that house before.

if She felt____________ in that house before.

5 I installed the computer as he had instructed me.

way I installed the computer ____________instructed me.

6 He isn't a rock star but he behaves like one.

though He behaves____________ a rock star.

7 She seemed to need a rest.

If She looked____________ a rest.

T 97-Put tile verbs in bracket into the correct tense.

1 He talked about Denmark as though he ... had been... (be) there but we know he never has.

2 She looks as if she ___________________ (be) really ill.

3 It looks as though it___________________ (rain).

4 She behaves as if she___________________ (be) in trouble.

5 The weather here is so bad, it looks as though we ___________________ (have to) holiday abroad.

6 It smells as if you___________________(put) lots of herbs in the stew.

7 Mauve looked as though she___________________ (have) little sleep the

night before, but she had gone to bed quite early.

8 When he speaks, it sounds as if English ___________________ (not/be) his

first language.

9 She spoke about university as though she ___________________

(spend) years there but in fact she'd only spent a month there.

10 I spoke to Simon last night and he sounded as though he___________________

(be) really upset about something.

11 She sounded as if she___________________ (be) French.

12 This sauce tastes as if you___________________ (put) too much pepper in it.

13 My sister isn't rich but she spends money as though she ___________________ (have) loads of it.

14 She acts as though she___________________ (be) very confident, but in fact she's quite shy.

15 She treats me as though I___________________ (be) her child.

16 He talks about karate as if he___________________ (have) a black belt but we know he's only just started lessons.

11 Little Tommy was trembling as though he ___________________ (see) a ghost.

18 She behaved as if nothing___________________ (happen).

19 When Moira broke off their relationship, John behaved as if the world___________________ (end).

20 That woman looks as though she___________________ (faint). Bring her some water.

U 98 Complete tile sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1Someone must have used too much garlic in the sauce.

If The sauce tasted .. as if someone had used too much garlic.

2 You look like you need a holiday.

If You look___________________ a holiday.

3 He seems to have lost weight since I last saw him.

as He looks_________________ weight since I last saw him.

4 She had a feeling she had met Gary before.

though She felt ___________________ Gary before.

5 She behaves like a beauty queen.

as She behaves___________________ a beauty queen.

6 She seems to need a rest.

If She looks___________________ a rest.

7 I mowed the lawn as he had told me to.

way I mowed the lawn___________________ told me to.

8 She isn't rich but she acts like a millionaires.

If She acts___________________ a millionaires.

9 I taught the class as she had instructed me to.

way I taught the class_________________ instructed me to.

10 My grandfather seems to have got much thinner since I last saw him.

as My grandfather looks___________________ much thinner since I last saw him.

11 I polished the silver like she told me to.

way I polished___________________ told me to.

12 He orders me like his slave.

as He orders___________________ his slave.

Exclamations

• Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise etc. They always take an exclamation mark (!). Some exclamations are: Oh dear!, Ah!, Oh!, Good gracious! etc.

• What + a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable noun What a nice day!

• What + (adjective) + uncountable/plural noun What awful weather What nice manners!

• How + adjective/adverb How clever he is! How slowly he speaks!

• You + (adjective) + noun You (filthy) liar!

• such (a/an) + (adjective) + noun It's such an old cad

• so + adjective/adverb He's so nice to us!

• adverb/adverbial particle + subject + verb of movement Off he went!

• Here/There + subject + verb There she goes! but There goes Mary! (when the subject is a noun, it follows the verb)

• interrogative - negative question at the beginning of the sentence Isn't it awful!

V Rephrase the following as in the example:

1 What fantastic photos!

Aren't these photos fantastic l

These photos are so fantastic! I How fantastic these

photos are! I There are such fantastic photos!.

2 This beach is so crowded!

3 He has such an expensive car!

4 How polite they are!

5 What a spoilt boy!

6 This is such a beautiful view!

7 The exam was so difficult!

8 It's been such a hot summer!

9 Don't they look angry!

10 What a helpful assistant!

11 She's so conscientious!

12 This is such nice weather!

13 How talented you are!

W Fill in: what (a/an), how, so or such (a/an).

1 ...What a...wonderful opportunity!

2 __________ funny he is!

3 This is__________ healthy meal!

4 __________ friendly staff!

5 He has __________ expensive taste!

6 __________ miserable he looks!

7 She works__________ hard!

8_________ terrible liar!

9 It's tragedy! __________ terrible liar

10 She's_________ easy to talk to!

11__________ fantastic costume!

12 _______________ sad music!

13 _______________enthusiastic she is!

14 He's _______________ imaginative artist!

15 They're _______________ helpful!

16 _______________ lucky man!

17______________ wonderfully she sings!

18 _______________ tasteful decorations you've got!

19 He's _______________ irresponsible employee!

20 _______________ amazing achievement!

21 They have_______________ much money.

22 _______________ridiculous hairstyle

 

 

 

  #10    28.02.07, 00:16 

 

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 Tests

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

TESTS:

D) Choose the correct answer.

1. Mr. Smith wouldn't stop drinking __________

a) even though his doctor advised him to do

b) although he hasn't seen me for years

c) because no one knows where he is

d) due to the fact that he is proud of his life

e) as if he wasn't telling the truth

2__________ I don't think that Betty and Bob will get a divorce.

a) Because they always argue

b) ln spite of their problems

c) Due to their quarrels

d) Since they are always quarrelling with each other

e) They always quarrel so

3.Though she can read quite well without her glasses __________

a) Mary has got very beautiful eyes

b) she couldn't understand what it was

c) Al was advised to wear glasses

d) she needs them to see at a distance

e) she doesn't need to get her eyes examined

4. Despite his injury __________

a) he will not be able to walk for a year

b) he couldn't go to school on his own

c) we helped him to walk to the garden

d) they came to the hospital as soon as they heard about the accident

e) Billy was able to play football in the big game yesterday

5. Even though my roommate is a very nice person__________

a) I really get along with him easily

b) we became very close friends

c) some of his behaviours irritates me

d) 1 also like him

e) my friend helps me whenever I need

6.Although she knows that her illness is incurable__________

a) she never gives up struggling against it

b) he doesn't care about it

c) he doesn't know which way to choose

d) she has doubts about her marriage

e) She loves doctors

7__________ we were forbidden to drive for six months.

a) Because the accident wasn't so serious

b) We were lucky because

c) Due to the accident

d) Although we were guilty

e) In spite of our wrong doing

8. Although everyone was pleased with the meal, Mrs Smith__________

a) liked it as well

b) insisted on complaining that the soup tasted bad

c) also ate most of the things on the table

d) made a delicious salad for us

e) suggested drinking wine after the dinner

9. In spite of his being tortured__________

a) he died because of it

b) he couldn't escape from the enemy

c) he spent all the rest of his life in prison

d) he will not be able to live any longer

e)the captured soldier didn't tell where the camp was located

10.The new program provides not only theoretical classes ______

a) nor practical exercises

b) but also practical training

c) or practising the theories

d) as well as problem solving activities

e) besides the problem solving courses

11. Jack and Mary are still planning to get married _______

a) because of their disagreement

b) although they are always in good terms with each other

c) due to the fact that they don't like each other

d) in spite of their disagreement

e) because they don't know each other well

12. In spite of the fact that some pills are available _______

a) many people take them to sleep

b) although many people are doubtful about them

c) doctors recommend taking them before sleeping

d) everybody is aware of its side effects

e) many people still have trouble sleeping

13. Owing to the extreme pressure underwater __________

a) divers are often sluggish

b) most people are eager to dive without necessary equipment

c) why divers are sluggish is still a mystery

d) divers are recommended that they should dive

e) an ocean is like a mysterious world

14. In order to enjoy fine wine __________

a) you must buy it from a shopping centre

b) one should drink it slowly, a little at a time

c) she didn't accept drinking it

d) one must refuse to drink it

e) you had better not drink it

15. Despite the fact that he was not the principal speaker ___

a) he wasn't expected to make a speech

b) she made an excellent speech before the audience

c) Ahmet took the opportunity seriously and worked carefully on his speech

d) speaking is a very important task for many people

e) Ayşe was eager to speak

E) Choose the correct answer.

1.Throughout its history the U.S. has welcomed immigrants; however, the time has come to shut the door of illegal entry.

a) Although the U.S. has welcomed immigrants throughout its history, it's high time they forbade illegal entrance.

b) In spite of the ban applied by the U.S. movement immigrants continue coming.

c) Because of some illegal entrances to the country, the U.S. government is planning to ban the entrance.

d) Immigration is a major problem for the American government.

e) The U.S. history is so illegal that immigrants are afraid to get into the country.

2. The cost of this aid is not only decreasing, but it also encourages illegal activity.

a)The cost of aid is decreasing but it doesn't encourage illegal activity.

b)The cost of this aid is decreasing in spite of the illegal activity.

c)The cost of this assistance is falling as well as encouraging unlawful activities.

d) The illegal activities are the result of the cost of this aid.

e) This aid costs so much that it increases legal activity.

3. We have so many poor people in the county because most of them are lazy and don't want to work.

a) If there are so many poor people in the county, the government

should take measures.

b) Many people are not hardworking and are unwilling to work, so there are so many poor people in the county.

c) Lazy people are likely to become poor

d) We must do our best to improve the conditions of the poor.

e) Although there are so many poor people in the county, we don't take them into consideration.

4 You talk as though you knew a lot on the subject.

a) As you know a lot on the subject, why don't you talk.

b) Talking on a subject unprepared can be dangerous.

c) If you hadn't known a lot on the subject, you wouldn't have spoken.

d) You're talking on the subject; however, you don't know anything about it.

e) The subject you are talking on is so thorough that it is impossible for me to think.

5. She rarely has enough time to study; otherwise, she would always make an A.

a)in spite of working hard enough, she couldn't make an A

b) She didn't need to have enough time to study.

c) She always got from exams; however, her family weren't satisfied.

d) Studying enough will lead her to success.

e)If she had enough time to study, she would always get an A.

6. He was so angry; nevertheless, he listened to us patiently.

a) if he hadn't been angry, he wouldn't have listened to us.

b) in spite of his anger, he listened to us patiently.

c) He is so frustrated that he doesn't listen to us impatiently.

d) He was very impatient, so he didn't listen to us.

e) Anger leads people to be more impatient nowadays.

7. The poor woman suffers from not only her illness but also the side effects of the treatment.

a) The poor woman suffers from both her illness and the harm that the treatment causes.

b) Although she was being treated, the poor woman suffered a lot.

c) The poor woman needed treatment so that she could recover.

d) The poor woman's disease was an incurable one.

e) Her illness' side-effect were not so dangerous as she thought.

8. Beside being expensive, the food in the cafeteria tastes bad.

a) The food in the cafeteria tastes bad because it's expensive.

b) They don't cook good food in the cafeteria.

c) The food in the cafeteria is not only expensive but also tastes bad.

d) Expensive food is not always so bad.

e) Although it is not cheap, the food in the cafeteria was cooked in sterile conditions.

9.Although he had run as fast as he could, he only came fifth in the race.

a) Since he couldn't run so fast, he was just fifth.

b) He ran as fast as he could in his fifth race.

c) No matter how fast he runs, he can't win the race.

d) He was fifth in the race in spite of the fact that he had run as fast as he could.

e) He was fifth in the race, so he couldn't run as fast he could.

10.Because light travels faster than sound, lightning appears before thunder.

a) Although lightning appears before thunder, sound is as fast as light.

b) Due to the tact that light is faster than sound, you first see lightning before thunder.

c) However fast sound travels, it can't catch up with light.

d) Even if it appears that sound appears to have a relation, they have nothing to do with each other.

e) Light and sound cannot be compared in terms of speed.

11. Despite the light rain, the baseball game will not be cancelled.

a) Although it is raining heavily, the baseball match will not be postponed.

b) The light rain is the greatest obstacle for the baseball match.

c) They had to call oft the match on account of the light rain.

d) The referee will not cancel the match if it rains.

e) They will not cancel the baseball game in spite of the light rain.

12. Leila came to village in order to educate the children.

a) Leila shouldn't have come to the village for education.

b) Education is of the greatest importance for the village Leila has been teaching.

c) Leila moved to the village so that she could educate the children.

d) The village Leila is going to teach is looking forward to her coming.

e) Leila educated the children so as to come to the village.

13. Lawyers in other pads of the world are prepared to lie in order that they can win their case.

a) Lawyers in our country, not in other pads of the world are prepared to win their case.

b) A lawyer must make some preparations before a case.

c) So as to regain his self-confidence, a lawyer must lie in the court.

d) Other parts of the world are flexible in lying in courts.

e) Lawyers in other parts of the world are prepared to lie so as to win their case.

14.Newspapers have a responsibility for reporting bad as well as good news.

a) Newspapers are supposed to report both good and bad news.

b) lf I were a newspaper owner, I wouldn't report bad news.

c) Bad and good news are so intricate that you cannot distinguish them.

d) Although all events are bad, a newspaper should try to find good sides of them.

e) Newspaper can make up bad stories from good news.

15.Although the fire was quite serious, no one was hurt.

a) If the fire was not serious, no one would be hurt.

b) No one was injured despite the fact that the fire was quite dangerous.

c) Due to the destructive fire, people were seriously injured.

d) In spite of the many casualties, the fire was extinguished.

e)Even though the fire wasn't so serious, people were injured because of carelessness.

 

F) Choose the correct answer.

1. He still remembers his childhood very well_________ he is nearly fifty. (CYS 1988) a)just as b)after

c)besides d) even though e) on the other hand

2_________ her temperature is so high, she will have to stay

in bed for a few days. (OYS 1990)

a)Unless b)Until c)As d) Whether e) However

3. The first applicant for the post was both fast_________ efficient_________ we hired her immediately.

a)also/so b)but /and c)so/but d)or/and e)and/so

4. Some people argue that certain oriental relaxation techniques _________yoga and meditation, are extremely effective in the treatment of high blood pressure. (CYS 1992)

a)so b)Justas c)such as d)both e)also

5. You must always have a good breakfast every morning_________ late you are. (OYS 1992)

a)no matter b)however c)although d) whatever e) even if

6. There has been very little rain in the last two day period_________ of the country. a high pressure area over most

a)in spite of b)despite c)because d) since e) because of

7.I will return your notes_________ I finish copying them.

a) until b) although c) as soon as d)though e)but

8. Sam usually does his work very carefully and well_________ today he seemed a little dull.

a)but b)and c)in order to d)so e)or

9. Why do you treat me_________ I were a child?

a)while b)as if c) although d) because e) owing to

10. Flying is______ faster ______ safer than travelling by car. a)and/or b)and /but c) so/that d) and I also e) not only I but also

11.A balanced diet should include fish and chicken____ red meat.

a)because of b)as if c)as well as d) as e) because

12_________buses are scheduled to depart at a certain hour, they are often late. a)Although b)Because

c)owing to d) In spite of e) Despite

13. We are considering buying a house in Ankara_________ first.

we want to find out what the taxes are there

a)and b)because c)due to d)but e)so

14.He had to borrow a little money from his brother______ working. he could finish his education without

a)to b)so that c)so as to d) in order to e) because

15.Both Mary and Alan____ Jane are studying nursing at university.

a)either b)as well c)too d)so e)as well as

16_________ his wealth, he is not spoiled. a) In spite of

b) Although c) Though d) Because e) Due to the fact that

17. It almost seemed_________ this fire was connected with the one last year. a) because b) owing to c) in spite of d)a if e)though

18_________ she is a famous actress1 people seldom recognise her in the streets.

a)ln spite of b)Due to c)Although d) Despite e) Because

 

A 78

2. such 3.so 4.such a 5.so 6.such a

7.so 8.so 9. such a 10. so

B 79.

2. Because he'd forgotten to bring the report with him,

he had to go home and get it./He had to go home and get

the report because he'd forgotten to bring it with him.

3. Since the food was bad, we complained to the manager.

4. Due to the fact that it was a long journey, they packed some food to take with them.

5. The reason why i hate sailing is because i get seasick.

6. Their house is too small and consequently, they are going to look for a larger one.

7. Since Sharon is busy this weekend, she can't come to the seaside with us.

8. lt was such a difficult exam that many students failed.

9. They fell behind with the project, and as a result they had to work overtime./As a result of falling behind with the project, they had to work overtime.

10. They spent the night in a hotel as their flight was delayed./As their flight was delayed, they spent the night in a hotel.

C 80.

2. ...so boring a film that...

3. ... the reason for their...

4 and consequently we were

5. ... too insistent for us to

6. ... as there was a...

7. ... and as a result

8. ...you know why she left...

9. ... was such strong coffee

10. ... so skilful a player that...

11. ... due to his lack of...

D 81.

2. ...the college where my son...

3. ... several dictionaries none of which

4. ... whose husband is an Oscar

5. ... why he resigned/is resigning/has resigned is

6. ... so appalling an event that.

7. ... too late for me to...

8. ... and as a result

9. ... as soon as he came

10. ... such polite children that...

11. ... the moment (that) he got

12. ... haven't seen Peter since...

13. ... who drive carelessly...

14. ... five students, one of whom...

E 103.

2. He left her, for he couldn't put up with her complaints.

3. Since there's so much work to do we can't go on holiday.

4. As i have to visit my uncle I can't come with you.

5. She made mistakes because she wasn't experienced.

6. Since she seldom talks about herself I didn't know that she had been married.

7. She took a break because she wasn't feeling well.

8. As it was raining very hard she was soaked to the skin.

9. On the grounds that he is in debt , he will have to reducehisspendingal0~,

10.They turned back, for they didn't want to get stuck in the traffic.

F 104.

2. such a 3, such 4. so 5. such a 6.so 7. so

8. so 9. such a 10. such a 11. such

G 106.

2. ...the food, for it was...

3.... know why she is/was so...

4.... was so lovely a summer

5.... because of lack of

6. ... consequently she couldn't talk

7. ... so interesting a book that...

8. ... (the reason) why he is/became/got...

9. ... as a result she had...

H 84.

2. ... so that she wouldn't

3.... 50 as to be/as he wanted to be...

4. with a view to continuing...

5. ... for fear that she might

6. ...with the aim of buying...

7.... in order to be...

8. ... for sharpening...

9. in case we want to...

10. to avoid getting stuck...

11. to prevent ourselves from getting...

12. in case he wants...

13. in order to learn

14. so that he will remember/he remembers

15. ...so as to stand out...

I 108. 2. She kept her jewellery in a safe deposit box for fear it might be stolen.

3. The beekeeper put on a veil and helmet to avoid being stung by the bees.

4. She is on a strict diet so as to fit into her black dress for the party.

5. He left home early in order to be at the restaurant on time.

6. I'll bring something for dessert in case we want to eat something sweet later.

7. This is a bread bin (which is) for keeping bread fresh.

8. I brought my umbrella in case it rained later.

J 109.

2. ... in case their luggage goes...

3. ... with the aim of driving

4. ... to prevent motorists (from) going

5. ... with a view to becoming

6. ... in case we are thirsty...

7. ... in order to buy...

8. ... used for banging in...

9. ... to avoid doing it

10. ... in order to go...

11. ... with a view to opening...

K 110. (Suggested answers)

2.so as to familiarise

3. so as not to make

4. in order to give

5.so that, will be able to verify

6. (so as/in order) to have

7. for taking out

8.so that, won't get

L 85.

2. ln spite of the fact that 3. although

4. yet 5. In spite of

6. though 7.Although

8. however 9. but

10. No matter what

M 87.

2. whatever 3. Nevertheless 4. In spite of 5. whereas 6. No mailer how

N 88.

2.... matter how much you 7. ... spite of working as

3. ... spite of being... 8.... no matter how hard...

4. .the fact that she exercises 9.... he has a good voice

5.... though he left home.. 10. ... did her best, yet she....

6.... though the plot was

O 111.

2. Although 3. Despite 4.yet

5. although 6. in spite of 7.though

8. nevertheless 9. as 10. However

11. yet 12. In spite of 13. even though

14. However 15. as 16. whereas

P 112.

2. No matter how/However

3. Despite

4. Where as /While/Although/Even though/Though

5 but

6 although /even though /though

Q 115.

2. ... Christmas, yet the weather is...

3.... mailer how hard he tried...

4. ... spite of not having much

5. ... despite the fact he found

6.... mailer what you say

7. ... dislikes pets; nevertheless she allowed...

8. ... while his wife enjoys...

9. ... no mailer how hard you

10. ... as she was, she managed...

11. ... even though they frighten...

R 89.

2.were/was 10. were/was 14. had just woken up

3. had never seen 11. have had 15. has

4. has never eaten 12. broke in

5. didn't have 13. will win/is going to win

6. were/was 14. had just woken up

7. were/was 15. has

8. had been

9. hadn't eaten

S 90.

2. ...as though some one had added...

3. ... as if he has put

4. ... as if she had been

5. ... (in) the way he had

6. ... as though he were

7. ... as if she needed

T 97.

2. is 3. is going to rain 4. is

5. will have to 6. (have) put 7.had had

8.isn't 9.had spent 10.were/was

11.were/was 12.have put 13.had

14.were/was 15.were/was 16.had

17.hadseen 18.hadhappened 19.hadended

20.isgoingtofaint

U 98

. 2. ...as if you need...

3. ... as if/though he has lost...

4. ... as though she had met...

5. ... as if/though she were/was...

6. ... as if/though she needs

7. ... (in) the way he had...

8 as if she were /was

9. (in) the way she had...

10. ... as if/though he has got...

11. the silver the way she...

12. ... me as if/though I were...

V 91.

2. Isn't this beach crowded! / How crowded this beach is! / What a crowded beach!

3. What an expensive car he has! / How expensive his car is! / Isn't his car expensive! I His car is so expensive!

4.Aren't they polite! / They are so polite! / What polite people they are!

5.Isn't he spoilt! / He is so spoilt! / How spoilt he is! / He is such a spoilt boy!

6.What a beautiful view! / This view is so beautiful! I How beautiful this view is!

7.What a difficult exam! / How difficult the exam was! I Wasn't the exam difficult!

8.What a hot summer it's been! / How hot the/this summer has been!

9.How angry they look! / They look so angry!

10. How helpful that assistant is! (Isn't the/that assistant helpful! / That assistant is so helpful! / She/He is such a helpful assistant!

11.How conscientious she is! / She's such a conscientious person! / Isn't she conscientious! etc

12.The weather is so nice! (What nice weather! / Isn't it nice weather! etc

13.What a talented person you are! (You are so talented! / Aren't you talented! etc

W 92

. 2. How 6.How 10. so

3. such a 7.so 11. What a

4. What 8.What a 12. What

5. such 9.such a 13. How

14. such an 18.What

15. so 19. such an

16. What a 20. What an

17. How 21. so

22. What a

 

TESTS:

D) Choose the correct answer.

1.a 2.b 3.d 4.c 5.c 6.a

7.c 8.b 9.e 10.b

11.d 12.e 13.a 14.b 15.c

E) Choose the correct answer.

1.a 2.c 3.b 4.d 5.e 6.b

7.a 8.c 9.d 10.b

11.e 12.c 13.e 14.a 15.b

F) Choose the correct answer.

1.d 2.c 3.e 4.c 5.b 6.e

7.c 8.a 9.b 10.e 11.c 12.a 13.e 14.b 15.e 16.a 17.d 18.c